Reverse Osmosis Plants/RO Plants
Reverse osmosis is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a
membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure.
This is the reverse of the normal osmosis process, which is the natural movement of solvent from an area of
low solute concentration, through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration when no external
pressure is applied. The membrane here is semipermeable, meaning it allows the passage of solvent but not of
To illustrate, imagine a semi permeable membrane with fresh water on one side and a concentrated aqueous
solution on the other side. If normal osmosis takes place, the fresh water will cross the membrane to dilute
the concentrated solution. In reverse osmosis, pressure is exerted on the side with the concentrated solution
to force the water molecules across the membrane to the fresh water side.
The membranes used for reverse osmosis systems have a dense polymer barrier layer in which separation takes
place. Since Reverse Osmosis does not occur naturally, it must be created by applying pressure to the high
solids water in order to force it through the membrane, with pressures from 8 - 14 bar for fresh and brackish
water, and 40 - 70 bar for seawater, which has around 24 bar (350 psi) natural osmotic pressure which must be
Design Considerations for RO Plant
Fluid Systems RO Plants work on the Crossflow Filtration method, which takes the feed water and uses a
percentage of it as a wash or reject stream, removing the solids during the filtration process.
The product flow of an RO Plant is mainly a function of temperature and pressure. System recovery (product
divided by feed) is limited by the characteristics of the feed water and can be controlled through the use of
recycle stream. Product quality is based on a percentage of dissolved solids fed to the membrane. There should
be an economic balance between product quality and system recovery. High recoveries increase concentration of
dissolved solids in the system which degrades quality, but high recoveries make the system work more
efficiently and decrease waste.
Reverse Osmosis Plants do not deliver to service all of the water that is fed to them. During operation, some
of the incoming water is used to wash down the membrane, and only part becomes finished product water.
Purified water is referred to as product and wastewater is referred to as concentrate, or reject. The percent
of water delivered as product is called the recovery, and depends upon the membrane and on total RO Plant
Pretreatment – Reverse Osmosis Plants
The feed water, depending on its source, may contain various concentrations of suspended solids and dissolved
matter. Suspended solids may consist of inorganic particles, colloidal particles and biological impurities
such as microorganisms and algae. Dissolved matter may consist of highly soluble salts, such as chlorides, and
sparingly soluble salts, such as carbonates, sulfates, and silica.
During the Reverse Osmosis process, the volume of feed water decreases, and the concentration of suspended
particles and dissolved ions increases. Suspended particles may settle on the membrane surface, thus blocking
feed channels and increasing pressure drop across the system. Sparingly soluble salts may precipitate from the
concentrate stream, create scale on the membrane surface, and result in lower water permeability through the
RO membranes. This process of formation of a deposited layer on a membrane surface is called membrane fouling
and results in performance decline of the RO system. The objective of the feed water pretreatment process is
to improve the quality of the feed water to the level which would result in reliable operation of the RO
membranes. Based on the raw water quality, the pretreatment process for RO Plants may consist of all or some
of the following treatment steps:
We Offer a wide range of Reverse Osmosis Plants [RO Plants]
- Clarification followed by Sand Filtration for Turbidity removal
- Water disinfection with chlorine
- Hardness reduction by Softening
- Addition of scale inhibitor
- Reduction of free chlorine using sodium bisulfite/ Activated carbon filters
- Final removal of suspended particles using cartridge filters
Industrial Reverse Osmosis Plants/ Industrial RO Systems
We manufacture a wide Range of
industrial Reverse Osmosis Plants to cater the stringent process requirements. Our industrial reverse osmosis
Plants are carefully customized and configured to suit the individual requirement of the output water, which
varies from normal drinking application to the specific usage, such as food Processing, pharmaceuticals and
boiler feeding requirement.
These systems come standard with pre-filters, chemical dosing and Antiscalant dosing. Customization is
available on all our units based on individual water application and customer needs.
- 4" & 8" TFC spiral wound membranes
- FRP membrane housings
- Epoxy painted steel frame
- SS High Pressure Piping
- Stainless steel High Pressure Multi-stage pumps
- 20 & 5 micron cartridge filter
- Low & High pressure switches
- Glycerin filled pressure gauges
- Permeate & concentrate flow meters
- PLC/Microprocessor based Controllers
- Outlet Conductivity meter
These Industrial RO Systems are available in the Flow Ranges from 1 M3/Hr Product Water Capacity and above.
Standard Ranges are available in Multiples of 1 M3/Hr up to 10 M3/Hr.
Higher flow Rates from 10 M3/Hr to 100 M3/Hr and above are custom-built as per Customers requirement with
extensive pre-filtration units to suit the most aggressive waters.
Commercial RO Systems / Institutional RO Systems
One of our most popular series, the Commercial RO usually comes in standard Models. These Commercial RO
Systems can be customized to add Multimedia Filters & Activated carbon Filters, Water softeners, Antiscalant
Dosing Systems, and UV sterilizers.
These systems are used to purify water and remove salts and other impurities. It is also capable of rejecting
bacteria The Main features of these RO Plants are
- Powder coated frame
- 20 & 5 micron sediment pre-filter
- Stainless Steel Multistage High pressure pump
- FRP pressure vessel
- Product and Reject Flow Meters
- Low & High pressure switch
- High rejection TFC membranes
- Heavy duty high pressure tubing
These Commercial/Institutional RO Systems are available in following Flow Ranges:
- 50 LPH RO Plants
- 100 LPH RO Plants
- 200 LPH RO Plants
- 500 LPH RO Plants
- 750 LPH RO Plants
Containerized RO Plants
Containerized Reverse Osmosis Plants / Containerized Desalination Plants/Containerized Ultra
supplies a host of water treatment in a containerized
version. From ultra filtration to brackish water plants to Desalination Plants. Fluid Systems provides an
affordable, plug-and-play desalination solution that can be commissioned in a short period. Our ready-to-use
containerized desalination plants can produce up to 1000 m3/day of drinking water.
The Plant is housed in a standard 20 or 40 ft container. The containers can be insulated on request. The Plant
comes with pre-piped and pre cabled connections [plug and play]. Remote Monitoring Option also available with
Benefits of Fluid Systems Containerized Plants
- Plug and Play Unit
- Minimum civil construction required
- Small footprint
- High quality components
- High recovery
- High TDS Rejection
- Easy Spare parts availability as standard Components are used
- Modular in design
- Low energy and chemical consumption
- Quick Installation
- Off shore Applications
- Armed Services Camps
- Construction Sites
- Mining Operations
Mineral Water Plants/Packaged Drinking Water Plants
As people become more health conscious, the demand for bottled water is increasing at a rapid rate. Bottled
water provides easy transportability and assured water quality.
With our several years of experience in the Water Treatment Field, we have developed comprehensive,
economically viable packages, such that the capital outlay is optimized. Our packages are offered in modules
so that they can be upgraded at a later date as the demand increases.
Typically a Packaged Drinking water Plant may consist of:
- Water Treatment Plant
- Packaging Plant
The Water Treatment Plant consists of One or All oft the below mentioned pocess:
Chlorine/Hypochlorite Dosing System
Chlorine/Hypo chlorite dosing system is done in the raw water for disinfection / oxidation of iron and
manganese (if present) in the water before filtration. sodium hypo chlorite reacts with water to form hypo
chlorite acids which acts as disinfecting agent.
PRESSURE SAND FILTER
Raw Water is first filtered by filtration unit in series prior to feeding the RO Plant. Pressure Sand Filter
unit is provided for
removal of Suspended Matters & Turbidity from raw water.
ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER
Basic Natural water may contain Colour, Odour, Chlorine & Organics in different proportion, which is
undesirable for potable application, and hence, it is necessary to remove the same from water. The Activated Carbon Filter
Chlorine, Odour, & Colour, Pesticides, Organics and In organics Impurities while passing the water through
SMBS DOSING SYSTEM
The Chlorinated water may oxidize the membrane and to avoid the same precautionary we provide Sodium Meta
BiSulphite dosing system
ANTI SCALANT DOSING
The hardness salts of Calcium & Magnesium are likely to be precipitated if concentration exceeds its
solubility limit & it may faults the membranes resulting into scaling which ultimately leads to poor treated
water quality from RO System. To prevent this Antiscalant dosing (scale inhibitor) dosing system is provided.
MICRON CARTRIDGE FILTER
Micron Cartridge Filter having Series of filtration with the 20 Micron, 10 Micron, 5 Micron, 1 Micron, 0.45
Micron & 0.2 Micron Cartridge. This is a Consumable Cartridge and should replace it after Days of operation.
This for Extra Safety of Product water as it comes through series of filtration and there are some chances of
slippages of particles, which can be arrested through the Cartridges
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP
For Reverse Osmosis Process to take place feed pressure of water need to be raised. For this purpose a
Vertical Multistage Centrifugal High Pressure Pump in S.S construction is provided R.O. System requires
operating pressure of about 14-16 kg/cm^2 . High-pressure pump is fitted with S.S. discharge pipe work with
necessary control valves. Necessary instruments like a High Pressure Switch, Pressure Gauge and re-circulation
valves are provided for safer operation of system.
REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM
Reverse Osmosis System rejects 97 – 99 % of total dissolved solids by the principle of `Osmosis’. This system
consists of a R.O. Module assembly mounted on Structural Skid. High pressure rating FRP Pressure Vessel
(Pressure Tubes) are fitted on the skid which houses spirally wound membrane elements in series.
In RO System feed soften water is divided into two streams viz Product & Reject water. Product water is
treated water having lesser TDS. Reject water is highly concentrated water, which is not to be used for any
purpose but drained. Followed Filtered water at elevated pressure is first feed to Pressure Vessel; treated
water is collected in center core tube. Treated water from each membrane is collected jointly in a common
product water storage tank and reject is drained.
For safe operation of system following instruments are provided on the Panel.
PRODUCT WATER STORAGE TANK
- Feed & Reject Pressure Gauge: to indicate respective pressure of R.O.System.
- Feed & Reject Flow Indicator: to indicate respective flow of R.O.System.
- T.D.S Meter: to measure TDS of Raw & Treated water.
- High Pressure Switch: for tripping HPP in case of excessive feed pressure
- Time Totaliser: for counting working hours of H.P Pump/ R.O.System.
Treated water from R.O. System are collected in S.S. constructed storage tank of appropriate capacity. The
tank is fitted with S.S. pipe work & isolation valves and suitable type of level indicator.
ABSOLUTE MICRON CARTRIDGE FILTERS: (MCF) - Removing the Micro Biological Growth
During storage, atmospheric or any other contamination may take place in treated water. Hence, after passing
water from R.O. System & after Storage, water is once again passed through a micron cartridge filters. This is
a S.S.316 Vessel, internally Electro polished fitted with internally with P.P Pleated micron cartridge
elements having absolute ratings of 1.0 micron & 0.2 microns which removes all bacterial impurities present in
the water and make the water free of particulates.
ULTRA VIOLET STERILIZER
With follow treatments treated water is free from all the micro-biological impurities like Bacteria, Virus,
etc. it may redevelop again in water during prolonged storage. For dis-infection of water is essential for
Reverse Osmosis Application before Filling & Sealing in bottle. Hence, a online Ultra Violet Sterilizer is
require for disinfections of Treated water before filling in pre-cleaned PET Bottles. The water to be
disinfected, is passed through U.V.System, which consists of U.V.Tubes which radiates high intensity Ultra
Violet Rays, which in turn kills the micro organisms. This systems consists of a S.S finished surface housing
with Ultraviolet Lamps fitted in it. The water to be treated is surroundings this tubes during treatment. An
electrical system is provided for production of high voltage required for U.V.Rays generation and Operating
Life of U.V.Lamps.
OZONE GENERATOR: (OZONE) - Generate the Ozone Gas
Though R.O. System rejects all the micro – organisms like bacterial & virus and even after passing through MCF
& U.V.System it may redevelop in packed bottles over a period of time. Hence, it is necessary to disinfect
R.O.Product water prior to bottling filling. This is very much essential to ensure good Mineral Water Quality
as per the standards. This Ozone Generator use for the Final Treated Water to make Oxygen Rich water and it
removes the Bacteriological growth and also provide you the Shelf Life of your Packed Bottle water unless it
open for some period of time. Also this Ozonated water can add some taste in to your Treated water.
The Packaging unit consists of one or All of the mentioned process:
Bottle Manufacturing by PET Blowing Machine:
For manufacturing of PET Bottles for Different sizes and available in Semi and Automatic Operation up to 3600
Bottles per hour.
Rinsing - Filling – Capping – Sealing Machine:
The bottles are fed into the machine which automatically rinses, fills and screws the cap on it. Caps are
stamped with the date of manufacture and expiry before being put into the hopper for screwing on to the
In this section the labels and the neck sleeve are to be manually put on the
bottles which will then pass through the shrink tunnels and onto packing conveyer.
This could be in cartons - done manually - and no machines have been
provided for it.
These Packing Machines come in both versions: Fully Automatic as well as Semi Automatic.
Fully Automatic Machines are with in feed Air Conveyor which gives higher production rate with no change parts
for different sizes of bottles. Such machines are Mechanical operated with Cam Drive and pneumatic operation
for accuracy of Washing and Filling.
Semi Automatic Machines are with Manual washing with Turn Tables and rest activity of Filling and Capping are
fully automatic operation. Both options have Shrink Tunnel for labeling application.
Fluid Systems offers Complete Turnkey Plants as per the Customer's Requirements. We have Affiliations with
leading Machinery manufacturers and have executed such Projects worldwide.